Arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) is a systemic disease of the arteries that leads to deposit of blood fats, blood clots, and connective tissue. Small amounts of these components can also lie within (and not at) the vascular walls.
An inflammation of the urinary bladder is, in most cases, due to an infection from bacteria that ascend the urethra to this organ. It is most commonly caused by gram-negative rod bacteria from the intestinal flora (Escherichia coli in 80% of cases) or gram-positive cocci, mycoplasma, ureaplasma, yeast, chlamydia, viruses, and chemical or mechanical stimuli may be responsible. Bladder infections are most common in females and the elderly and can arise from drainage disorders of urine from the bladder or medical interventions. They are mostly treated with antibiotics. A serious complication from the infections is inflammation of the renal pelvis, which may be accompanied by high fever and even lead to blood poisoning and abscess formation.
A burn or a burn trauma is an injury caused by excessive heat. This can be caused by hot liquids (scald), vapours or gases, flame and explosions, intense sunlight (sunburn), electricity or friction. In burns, skin and mucous membranes are damaged primarily. Comparable damage is caused by cold combustion, a special form of local frostbite.
The most frequent disease of the carotid artery is an arteriosclerotic vessel narrowing (stenosis). Due to hemodynamic reasons, in the majority of cases this happens at the Carotisbifurcation, the region of division into the internal carotid artery and external carotid artery. Risk factors include smoking, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and male gender. The condition increases the risk of stroke, so in case of considerable severity, surgery (thromboendarterectomy) or stent angioplasty can be performed.
Diabetes mellitus encompasses various disorders of the carbohydrate metabolism that are characterized by elevated blood sugar levels. The two best known forms are type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is the most frequent form (about 95 %). Currently, about 6 million people in Germany suffer from diabetes. This corresponds to more than 9% of the adult population. Of these 6 million, one in five with the disease remain undiagnosed (= 1.3 million).
Diabetic foot ulcers
Diabetic Foot ulcers or the diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) is a complication of diabetes (diabetes mellitus). Due to the lack of insulin, the metabolism is disturbed and the body can not be optimally supplied with nutrients and oxygen. This leads to the damage of superficial blood vessels and nerves in the legs and feet. As a result of this damage to the peripheral nerves in the foot, pain will no longer be consciously perceived by the patient, with the result that injuries are not felt and inflammation arises very quickly. Due to the damage to the blood vessels wounds heal poorly. Annually approximately 30,000 amputations are performed as a result of diabetic foot syndrome in Germany.
Stenosis of blood vessels is usually caused by atherosclerosis. In coronary heart disease (CHD) stenosis is often the precursor of a closure, which then leads to acute myocardial infarction. Stenosis can also occur in the leg arteries, the renal arteries, the iliac vessels and the neck vessels. The latter represent a risk for cerebral infarction by vascular occlusion or arterial embolism. Restenosis is the re- closure of the blood vessel after treatment. This is, for instance, a common complication after the insertion of a stent, when the body's own tissue in the vessel is overgrown and thereby narrows again.
Venous leg ulcer
The term ulcus cruris in medicine refers to a defect in the tissue of the outer lower leg area. Typically, there are open-ended, generally exuding wounds that do not heal for a long time. Colloquially, the ulcis cruris is also referred to as an "ulcerous leg". It affects mostly the elderly who already suffer from several underlying diseases. Approximately 80% to 90% of all ulcers are considered to be conditionally venous and about 10% are due to arterial circulatory disorders.